History of Kavala


Speculated that the name of the city comes from the ancient settlement "Skavalla", today's old Kavala, from which the ancient inhabitants are believed to have arrived in Kavala. Skavalla has been mentioned since 470 B.C. As an ally of the Athenians. With the passage of time it was destroyed by the raids of the Barbarians and the inhabitants of fleeing came to Christoupoli for more security. With the arrival of the new inhabitants, the city took a different view, ceased to be called Christoupolis and is referred to as NEA Skavala.[1]

Neapolis (7th century B.C.-746 A.D.)[2]
Christoupolis (746 A.D.-1470 A.D.)[2]
Kavalla (old script)[3] or Kavala (1470 A.D.-Today)[2]
Other historians say the name of the city was taken from the Italian Genoese who resided here. When they first saw the city away from the sea, which looked like a horse, they said Kavalo (Cavallo = horse) i.e. "horse" and thus prevailed to be called Kavala.

The history of the city starts from prehistoric times and extends to the present day. The reports on this one are lost in the Homeric narratives and on the other they are recorded in the archives of the Athenian Alliance. On the one hand the city became world famous for the arrival of the democratic troops of the Roman Empire in view of the historical Battle of Philippi and on the other for the arrival of apostle Paul in 49 A.D., making Neapolis (current Kavala) first European city that accepted Christianity. It is famous for the magnificent works of the Byzantines and Turks (such as Kastro and Kamares) and for being the birthplace of Mehmet Ali, the viceroy of Egypt. At the same time, the modern history of the city is equally interesting, both for the smoking and the first strikes in the Balkans (1896) and for the rich industrial activity with the dominant one of black gold.

The oldest finds found in the prefecture of Kavala, came to light in the 50 in the area "Tzines" of Thassos (mountainous area near Limenaria) and concern mining tools of modern Paleolithic, about 20,300 years B.C. At that time the sea level was much lower than today, with the result that the island of Thassos was connected via a peninsula with the hinterland. But during the Mesolithic era when the temperature of the environment grew and melted the glaciers, the waters of the sea flooded the previously plain. The transition to the Neolithic era was characterized by the permanent establishment with the founding of the first settlements, the domestication of animals and the cultivation of the land.

The first organized societies appear in the plains of Philippi around 5,600 B.C. More well-known positions in the prefecture of Kavala for the period of Neolithic are in the position of Deliki Tash (upright stone in Turkish), which presents habitation from the Middle Neolithic, the position that is located near the village of Akropotamos, the location that is near the Paradise and the prehistoric settlement of Limenaria Thassos. Many settlements present continuous habitation and the Bronze Age, with more important findings, these from the prehistoric cemetery of the village Kastri Thassos and Skala Sotira, Thassos. The place in Skala Sotira of Thassos is the only settlement in the Balkans that was walled, the floor plan of which was designed with pebbles on the floor of the Church of the village[5]. The final phase of the Bronze Age is sealed with Mycenaean penetration. Vases Mycenaean or local impressions, bronze knives of Mycenaean type as well as other objects are witnesses of the commercial contacts of South Thassos with South Helladites Thalassoporos.

Although not dated, the most famous are the wonderful rock paintings near the current village of Philippi. The current city of Kavala was built on two prehistoric sites, the Andisara, the present Kalamitsa, as well as the settlement of the Iron Age that was located east of the city, in the area of Perigialiou. Due to the uncontrolled construction mainly in the middle of the 20th century, it is only preserved is a part of the wall of Adrisaras, among the buildings of the modern city. Several findings of the prehistoric period exist in the Archaeological Museum of Kavala (mainly the location of Dikili Tash) and the Archaeological Museum of Thassos in Limenas.

After long wars (which according to history took place also the poet Archanlochos) with the Thracian tribes that resided in the region, the Thasioto cope more effectively with the Thracian raids, around the middle of the 7th century B.C., founded the Neapoli. Apart from its strategic position, on the road connecting the east with the West, as well as its natural port, Neapoli was among the fertile and rich ores of Thassos, near the Golden Mountain of Mt. Pelion and right next to the fertile plains of Philippi. and Nestos.

Ionic capital from the Late Archaic Church of the Virgin of Ancient Neapolis, today's Kavala, Greece, late 6th century B.C.
He was a member of the first Athenian alliance and the second Athenian Alliance, which is mentioned in the tax catalogues. The honorary resolutions of the Athenian municipality praise Neapolis for its support in Athens during the turbulent period of the Peloponnesian War. Primary worship in the city at this time was the patron saint of Virgo. The autonomy of Neapolis is also shown by the silver coins (staters), which begin to be used just before 500 B.C. With the depiction of the swift always on one side (which mattered, to expel the misfortune). Neapolis remained an ally of Athens until 340 B.C., when Philip II occupied it by appending it to the Macedonian kingdom. The position of Neapolis today is placed on the peninsula of Panagia without making clear its exact point (only the position of the Holy Virgin was documented). The findings of Neapolis are exhibited at the Archaeological Museum of Kavala.

Neapolis, after the Roman conquest, seems to be declining. However, due to its extremely strategic position, it acquires particular importance in the last third of the 2nd BC. century, with the construction of the Egnatia Road, which passed through it, as it shows the section paved road that survives at the top of the symbol, and the finding of a Roman milligram, where it is inscribed: "… Viam a dyrrachio usque neapolim per Provinciam macedoniam… Curavit ". In fact, according to the Roman travel, there was a Roman horse-changing station (TAB. Peuting., VII, 2-3: "Philippis XX-Fons co-Neapolis XLIIII-Acontisma…". Itin. Anton., 320: "Philippi M.P. XXX-Neapoli M.P. XII… "). After the founding of the Roman colony of Philippi, Neapolis served as the seaport of the colony, since from its port passed the Great Sea Road Alexandria (Troadas) – Thessaloniki. This is why the Apostle Paul in 50 A.D. From Samothrace sails to the port of Neapolis and from there it headed towards Philippi. This is where the first Christian church on European soil is founded.

During the Byzantine period, the ancient Neapolis was renamed to Christoupolis.. The first testimonies of the new name are in the code 1557 a of 746 A.D. In 926 the new walls of Christoupolis were raised, as the old ones had suffered heavy damage from the reign of Justinian. To 1185 the city is burned and destroyed by the Normans[8]. In the years 1321-1328 the state was plagued by civil war. The city became the center of Operations of the new Andronikos. In 1387 the city was subjugated by tax, then capitulate, to the Ottomans and in 1391 it was occupied by the troops of the Ottoman self-occupation

In 1425, the castle of Christopolis was temporarily occupied by 10 Venetian galleons. In 1530 about the city was re-founded by Suleiman the Magnificent. At the base of the Byzantines, the arches are built and the walls are repaired, in the place of an older, possibly Roman aqueduct, construction of mosques. At that time the first signs of the name "Kavalla" come. At the same time there are massive Islamisation of residents and settlements of Muslims and Jews that raise the percentage of Muslim residents of the city and make the Christians a minority. At the end of the 18th century Kavala is an important port and commercial center, home to many foreign commercial houses and consulates. Also the Greek population is reinforced. From 1817 to 1821 the Imaret was built by the Egyptian swamp of Mehmet Ali. In the late 19th, early 20th century Kavala is the most important tobacco processing and trading centre of the Balkans, many large tobacco warehouses and neoclassical buildings are built. Greeks in the early 20th century are now dominant in the city financially and in population. In 1906 the first gymnastic was founded in the city under the name "Filipoi".

The people of Kavaliotes participated in the National liberation struggles of the Greeks. The famous kavaliotis was the chieftain Ilarion Karatzoglou.[11] Also, another well-known Cavaliotis fighter was Constantine Serdaroglou, who was hanged by the Ottomans during the outbreak of the 1821 revolution.[12] An important kavaliotis fighter of 1821 was also the gunner of the Navy Nicholas Kayasas.[13]

In 1864, after a permit given by the Sultan, Kavala expanded building outside the walls of the old town. The citizens settled in the current district of St. John. This and the fact that at that time Macedonian tobacco was known throughout the world transformed the city into a tobacco processing and marketing centre. It was also helped by its location with its natural harbor. In Kavala, the first and longest working strike (5000 workers) took place throughout the Balkans, in the year 1896. This is the beginning of the tobacco labour movement.

-ERR: REF-NOT-FOUND-while it was still a Turkish prisoner in it were circulated three Greek newspapers that classify it as second city after Thessaloniki, in Greek newspaper editions, mercury, Flag and wave. The founding of the Turkish Constitution in 1908 in Kavala founded the first official tobacco-working club in the Balkans, the bliss, which existed since 1905 in the form of a club called Temperance. Kavala had a great contribution during the Macedonian struggle. From Kavala were the Makedonomachoi chieftains Petros Ioannidis and Pericles Drakos.[14] Around 1905-1906 the first Greek-language newspapers began to appear with the first "flag".

In October 1912, the Bulgarian army occupied Kavala without resisting the Ottomans. They followed violence against the Muslim population, as well as arrests of representatives of the Jewish community. Kavala was liberated in 1913 by the Greek fleet that was anchored in Thassos during the Second Balkan War. On June 25, 1913 Greek boats appear and on the 26th of June in the morning, the destroyer of Glory is in the Gulf of Kavala. With the help of Kavaliotes, which help in the identification of mines in the Gulf of Kavala, the Navy occupies the city.

In August 1916, the Bulgarians invaded and occupied Kavala as well as the whole of Eastern Macedonia again (2nd Bulgarian occupation of Greek lands (1916-1918)). The entire Fourth Army Corps in the city was transferred to Gerlic[16], which was used as a "hospitality" area.

According to a report by the Greek ambassador to Sofia, by April 1917 about 6,000 people died of starvation only in the Kavala region and 4,000 people in drama, according to the U.S. Library of Congress Records. The food and humanitarian crisis that was created at the expense of the Greeks of Eastern Macedonia during the 2nd Bulgarian occupation, was found in its entire range after the liberation of the regions, when they organized soup kitchens, drafts Hospitals and distribution of medical equipment. In 1918, the city was freed after two years of hard occupation.

After the Asia Minor catastrophe of 1922 and the subsequent population exchange in 1923-24, the city is flooded with a large wave of Greek refugees from Eastern Thrace, Eastern Romyria and Asia Minor. The total number of refugees settled was 27,500.

Initially they were housed in old tobacco shops and makeshift houses later but new districts were created such as the Thousand, the five hundred and the Giirtzi settlement, while other refugees were restored to the old Ottoman houses of the Panagia district. The refugee element transplanted into the city its great cultural tradition and at the same time constituted the driving power of Kavala, leading to high economic growth with the main lever the increase of tobacco cultivation and tobacco trade.

Also, the tobacco workers constituted a key element for the labour rights with their organized trade unions, which forced the tobacco merchants to improve their working conditions the remuneration of the workers. The four-year period 1928-1932 was the Most glorious period for kavala with large projects such as the port, the lighting network, the reforestation and the new school buildings.

The Bulgarian presence in Kavala and throughout Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in the form of military occupation during the Second World War was the result of a diplomatic agreement between Germany and Bulgaria and a concession from Part of the first on the accession of the second to the axis. The invasion began on April 20, 1941 and by 15 May was occupied by the Bulgarians all the ceded area. The Bulgarian Possessory Army systematically carried out various restrictive measures aimed at minimising the presence of the Greek language and the Greek civilization. The area was finally released on September 13, 1944.

In January 1949 the first radio station of the city was founded. In the 50 the city began to expand to the west, the area of Kalamitsa, and later to the east, the area of slaughterhouses and Perigiali, to counted in the town planning complex. In 1957 begins the annual "Filippi-Thassos festival". In 1961, the "phosphate fertilizer industry", the largest fertilizer industry in the country, is founded. In December 1967, King Constantine II comes to town to organise a failed movement against the dictatorial regime. On 23 December 1969 the "Kavala Oil" is founded. On 6 December 1971 the first, but fruitless, drilling is carried out. On February 1, 1974, the research drilling "Prinos-1" discovers the "Prinos" deposit with a test flow of 2950 barrels per day of crude oil. In 1970, the construction of the national Stadium of the city was completed. The national stadium is inaugurated on September 10th. On the 21st of April 1972 the Faliro Park was inaugurated with Bathers ' beach, later abandoned. In July 1974 a large group of armed men were sent to Cyprus to deal with the Turkish invasion. On August 14, 1985 the most devastating, until now, fire in the Periurban Forest of the city cremated 10,000 acres. In 1991 the first television station of the city was founded "Ena Channel".

In October 2002 the commercial port of the city "Philip II" was created just outside the city. On April 3, 2005 the silos, the first building of Europe from concrete, are demolished to erect the courthouse. On 27 February 2008, more than 12 thousand citizens protested against the creation of a power plant of PPC. In 2010 the new hospital of the city was built, where later it became a peripheral and the annual institution of "Air-Sea Show" began. In 2013 the central port of the city is renamed "by Paul". On July 5, 2014 a massive rally takes place during the creation of the LNG station. From the end of 2015 until the summer of 2016, perhaps, the biggest strikes of the private sector in the city, after the smoked labour struggle, in the city by the workers of the fertilizer plant. The 2016 was successfully completed an important residential plan that was granted through the program "NSRF 2007-2013", which concerned the bioclimatic upgrade of the roads of Red Cross and Venizelos where the latter was monodromed. On 15 May 2018 a rally was held against the creation of a frontal toll station in white Sands. The rally was organised by the municipal authorities and other trade unions. On June 6, 2018 was held in the City one of 24 Taytochorna rallies in Greece for the assignment of the term "Macedonia" to Macedonia's new name. On November 9 collapsed part of the bridge against the old hospital of the city that until the tradition of Egnatia highway in circulation was the only way to steer to Thrace and Turkey and vice versa, from Thrace to the rest of Greece.




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